FreeBSD email server - Part 1: Preparations
This tutorial is devised into multiple chapters to make it more manageable, and to be able to better explain why certain parts are needed.
The tutorial is created out of experience setting up my own email server. I have read through quite a lot of documentation so you do not have to. Nonetheless, I would recommend doing so. Email business is a tricky one, with a lot of moving parts that have to fit into each other. Knowing how exactly each part works will greatly help understanding why they are needed in a proper email server. Besides that, it will make your life a lot more enjoyable if you want to tweak some things after this tutorial.
To kick off, some preparations should be done before you start on setting up your own email server.
Some DNS setup is required for mail. Most importantly, the MX records of a
domain. Be sure you have a domain available, otherwise, get one. There are
plenty of registrars and the price is pretty low for most domains. If you want
to look hip, get a
For the DNS records themselves, make sure you have an
A record pointing to
the server IP you're going to use. If you have an IPv6 address, set up an
AAAA record as well. Mail uses the
MX DNS records. Make one with the value
10 @. If you have multiple servers, you can make MX records for these as
well, but replace the
10 with a higher value each time (
These will be used as fallback, in case the server with pointed to by the
record is unavailable.
Next up you will have to install and configure PostgreSQL. Although using a database is not required, this tutorial will make use of one. Using a database makes administration easier and allows you to add a pretty basic web interface for this task.
Since the tutorial uses FreeBSD 11, you can install PostgreSQL easily by running
In order to start Postfix, you should enable the system service for it. This
service can be used to easily manage it. In addition, it will start
automatically on boot.
Since PostgreSQL is a little different than the more popular MySQL, I
will guide you through setting up the database as well. To begin, switch user
postgres, which is the default administrative user for PostgreSQL. Then
simply open up the PostgreSQL CLI.
Once you are logged in to PostgreSQL, create a new user which will hold ownership of the database and make a database for this user.
Once this is done, create the tables which will hold some of our configuration data.
Installing the Let's Encrypt client is just as straightforward
as the PostgreSQL database, using
Getting a certificate
Requesting a certificate requires your DNS entries to properly resolve. If they
do not resolve yet, Let's Encrypt will bother you with errors. If they do
resolve correctly, use
certbot to get your certificate.
This should be everything required to get started on setting up your own email server. Continue to part 2 of this series to start setting up Postfix.